Why Kotlin is my next programming language
A lighthouse on Kotlin Island, Russia
An ode to the language you’ve never heard of
Kotlin is a new programming language from JetBrains, the maker of the world’s best IDEs. After much searching, I have settled on it as the programming language I will probably use for the next 5–10 years or so.
I like Kotlin a lot and think it will be a very successful project. Someone who saw me using it in my open source work asked me to write about it, so in this article I’ll explain why I think Kotlin is good. Then I will discuss some of the problems and hiccups you may encounter if you start using it today. Finally, I’ll argue that now Kotlin is on the scene you should consider using the JVM if you aren’t already (e.g. because you use Go or Node).
Why Kotlin is good
At first this article may seem strange: normally language advocacy articles start by listing all the cool features the new language has. This article does not; we will get to them later.
I am going to start by telling you about other things, because a 2013 study showed that language features matter little compared to ecosystem issues when developers evaluate programming languages. That tallies with my own experience, so, here we go:
Kotlin comes from industry, not academia. It solves problems faced by working programmers today. As an example, the type system helps you avoid null pointer exceptions.
Kotlin costs nothing to adopt! It’s open source, but that’s not what I mean here. What I mean is there’s a high quality, one-click Java to Kotlin converter tool, and a strong focus on Java binary compatibility. You can convert an existing Java project one file at a time and everything will still compile, even for complex programs that run to millions of lines of code. This is how I am adopting Kotlin and I expect it to be how most developers do.
As an obvious implication of the above, Kotlin programs can use all existing Java frameworks and libraries, even advanced frameworks that rely on annotation processing. The interop is seamless and does not require wrappers or adapter layers. It integrates with Maven, Gradle and other build systems.
It is approachable and it can be learned in a few hours by simply reading the language reference. The syntax is lean and intuitive. Kotlin looks a lot like Scala, but is simpler. The language balances terseness and readability well.
It enforces no particular philosophy of programming, such as overly functional or OOP styling.
It imposes no runtime overhead. The standard library is small and tight: it consists mostly of focused extensions to the Java standard library. Heavy use of compile-time inlining means functional constructs like pipelines of map/filter/reduce compile similarly to an imperative version of the same code.
Combined with the appearance of frameworks like Anko and Kovenant, this resource lightness means Kotlin is starting to become popular with Android developers. If you’re working on Android, you will soon be in good company. You can read a report written by a developer at Square on their experience with Kotlin and Android.
Kotlin allows you to keep using your productivity enhancing tools. If you use IntelliJ, IDE interop is entirely seamless: code can be refactored, searched, navigated and auto completed as if the Kotlin code was Java and vice-versa. There is full support for debugging, unit testing, profiling and so on.
Beyond Android, I think Kotlin is highly suitable for enterprise Java shops. If you spend all day working on big Java codebases at even bigger companies, you should investigate Kotlin because:
- It has strong commercial support from an established company. JetBrains is committed to the project, has a large and highly competent team working on it, has a stable business model and is even converting parts of their own flagship product to use it. Kotlin is unlikely to be abandoned any time soon.
- Adopting Kotlin is low risk: it can be trialled in a small part of your code base by one or two enthusiastic team members without disrupting the rest of your project: Kotlin classes export a Java API that looks identical to that of regular Java code.
- Because Kotlin focuses on readable syntax, code reviews are not a problem: they can still be done by team members who aren’t familiar with the language.
- It targets Java 6, so you can use it even if your deployment makes upgrading to a newer JVM difficult.
Earlier this year I presented Kotlin to a team of Java and .NET architects at Swiss Re, a large reinsurance company. I started by defining a simple Java class with a few fields, toString, equals, hashCode etc. It was about 50 lines of code. By the time we had finished converting it to Kotlin (mostly automatically), it had shrunk to just one line of code. I then demoed other time saving features. They were enthusiastic and saw it as a potentially strong competitor to C# for their own projects.
I think Kotlin hits the sweet spot for enterprise Java devs, so even though Kotlin is free I expect JetBrains to make a killing from increased sales of the commercial version of their IDE. This will incentivise them to keep improving it according to the wishes of their customers.
Contrast this with many other language developers who are subsidised by unrelated products, meaning they have little reason to respond to the demands of their users when those demands conflict with pre-held ideologies.